GOLD

platinum ← gold → mercury
Ag

Au

Rg
Appearance
metallic yellow
General properties
Namesymbol,numbergold, Au, 79
Pronunciation/ˈɡld/
Element categorytransition metal
Groupperiodblock116d
Standard atomic weight196.966569g·mol−1
Electron configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s1
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1 (Image)
Physical properties
Phasesolid
Density (near r.t.)19.30 g·cm−3
Liquid density atm.p.17.31 g·cm−3
Melting point1337.33 K, 1064.18 °C, 1947.52 °F
Boiling point3129 K, 2856 °C, 5173 °F
Heat of fusion12.55 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization324 kJ·mol−1
Specific heat capacity(25 °C) 25.418 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa)1101001 k10 k100 k
at T (K)164618142021228126203078
Atomic properties
Oxidation states-1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
(amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity2.54 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies1st: 890.1 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1980 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius144 pm
Covalent radius136±6 pm
Van der Waals radius166 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structureLattice face centered cubic
Magnetic orderingdiamagnetic
Electrical resistivity(20 °C) 22.14 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity(300 K) 318 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion(25 °C) 14.2 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound(thin rod)(r.t.) 2030 m·s−1
Tensile strength120 MPa
Young's modulus79 GPa
Shear modulus27 GPa
Bulk modulus180 GPa
Poisson ratio0.44
Mohs hardness2.5
Vickers hardness216 MPa
Brinell hardness25 HB MPa
CAS registry number7440-57-5
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of gold
isoNAhalf-lifeDMDE (MeV)DP
195Ausyn186.10 dε0.227195Pt
196Ausyn6.183 dε1.506196Pt
β0.686196Hg
197Au100%197Au is stable with 118 neutrons
198Ausyn2.69517 dβ1.372198Hg
199Ausyn3.169 dβ0.453199Hg




   
   
   
  Site Map